Democracies and one-party states. Europe’s mediaeval Parliaments were devised as a way of formalising the European notion that the king must consult with his more important subjects. Only very gradually did they democratise. Dropping this complex system onto a society with very different traditions mostly fails.
How John Stewart Mill twisted the idea of liberty. He was happy to endorse authoritarian rule for what he saw as progressive ends. And approved of China being busted open by the Opium Wars.
British Democracy Began in 1884, at the earliest. The USA was not much better, maintaining racism into the 1960s.
The Significance of the Year 1984. The year should have been celebrated as the centenary of British democracy. Only in 1884 did a majority of adult males living in Britain have a vote. George Orwell managed to give it a very different meaning.
Why Churchill Admired Mussolini. The matters left out by most of his biographers.
How Churchill was Close to Fascism. He developed similar ideas, and his opposition to Hitler was based just on fear of Germany becoming stronger than the British Empire.
Economical With The Irish. How a noted British magazine like The Economist can feel comfortable about the vast number of avoidable Irish deaths in the mid-19th century Potato Famine.
The broad range of meanings that democracy can include. Also available as a PDF, Problems 14.
A criticism of David Miliband’s notion that Britain should try to impose its own model of democracy. From 2008, when he was Foreign Secretary.
Letter on Democracy and Capitalism. Explaing how late a development it was in British society.
From two magazines, Problems and Labour Affairs., with other old articles on the website.
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